Comments suggest that a few people have found it hard to follow my reasoning on the genetics in my previous article DNA Shows that KV55 Mummy Probably Not Akhenaten. I'm sorry. I was at full-stretch myself with the genetics and I let my explanation slide a little. I want everybody to understand the reasoning so here's a 30 second version for you.
- Thuya had two "genes" which were rare. Only 1 in 100 people have each of them. Only 1 in 10,000 people have both of them. Tiye didn't inherit these genes but they re-appear in the foetuses. How? Do we go for the 1 in 10,000 option of blind chance, or do we think that the foetuses inherited the rare genes from Thuya by a line of descent other than Thuya -> Tiye -> KV55 -> Tutankhamun?
- There are two even rarer genes (only 1 in 1,000 people have each of them) which make a similar jump: one jumps from Amenhotep III to the foetuses; the other jumps from either Yuya or Amenhotep III to the foetuses. Neither gene passes Amenhotep III -> KV55 -> Tutankhamun. It would be a 1 in a million chance that the foetuses didn't inherit these genes from Amenhotep III (or Yuya). Again how?
How might this be explained? History suggests that the first case is explained by Nefertiti (her father is thought by many to have been Ay, son of Yuya and Thuya) and the second by Akhenaten ... if the mummy in KV55 is not Akhenaten of course. And playing Sudoko with the genetic data suggests it's impossible for KV55 to be the father of both Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun - the genetics of their children (the foetuses) is impossible to reconcile. (Of course, the foetuses might not be Ankhesenamun's - another queen anybody?)
Finally, I play Sudoko with the full family tree to show that it is possible to have KV55 as another prince (Smenkhare?) and add Akhenaten and Nefertiti in as parents of the mother of the foetuses. This also allows me to predict what future genetic tests (such as mitochondrial DNA) should show - a good, scientific theory should make testable predictions. I also show that all of KV21A, KV21B and Y35YL could be (not were, just could be), daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
That's a bit of a simplification and omits the caveats and assumptions, but it's my argument in a nutshell.